What are the Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes
What are the symptoms of diabetes: Diabetes is defined as a chronic health problem that affects the body’s ability to use and exploit the energy in food, as the body destroys the carbohydrates and sugars in food to glucose sugar in the normal position, and glucose is the source of energy in the cells of the body, but the cells of the body need the hormone insulin In the blood in order to take advantage of the existing glucose and convert it into energy, and in cases of diabetes, the body may be unable to secrete insulin in sufficient quantities, or it is unable to use the insulin that is produced, or these two problems may come together.
Types of diabetes
Three main types of diabetes, namely:
- Type 1 Diabetes: It is an autoimmune disease that occurs because the body attacks the cells of the pancreas, which leads to the inability of the pancreas to secrete insulin, and this type usually occurs at a young age, and maybe the cause It has a genetic predisposition in the patient, or because of the breakdown of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, which are beta cells (English: Beta Cells of Pancreas), and this type is treated by using insulin.
- Type 2 Diabetes: This type of diabetes is considered to be more moderate than the first type, but despite that, it may cause serious complications, and this type occurs most often at older ages, and in cases of the second type of diabetes The body may produce the hormone insulin, but the amount is not sufficient compared to the needs of the body, or the body cells may resist this hormone, and it can be controlled by losing weight, proper nutrition, exercising, and taking certain types of medications.
- Gestational Diabetes: Pregnancy stimulates the occurrence of this type of diabetes and is usually diagnosed in the middle or end of the pregnancy, and in most times this type of diabetes does not cause symptoms, and in cases that may cause symptoms, the symptoms are simple and mild As an increase in thirst and urination, as gestational diabetes leads to risks and problems for the mother and the child such as the occurrence of breathing problems in the child, or an abnormal increase in its weight, which makes it difficult for the birth process, and increases the child’s risk of diabetes during the next life periods, and obesity may increase and a family history of diabetes occurs From the chance it happened De pregnant.
Symptoms of diabetes
There are many symptoms associated with diabetes of all kinds, and detailed as follows: What are the symptoms of diabetes?
Symptom’s of the diabetes in common betweens types I & II
- Diabetes symptoms occur due to an increase outside the normal limit for blood glucose sugar, and the warning symptoms of the disease may be so mild that it is not possible to notice and know its existence until after the occurrence of long-term damage as a result of the disease, and this happens especially in the second type of diabetes, but as for symptoms of type The first is diabetes, so the symptoms are more severe and accelerate in days or weeks. The following are common symptoms between the first and the second type:
- Feeling hungry and tired, as the body converts the food eaten to the glucose sugar that the body needs for energy, but because the body does not produce sufficient amounts of insulin or because the cells of the body are resistant to insulin, the body will not be able to use glucose to produce energy, and thus this will cause fatigue and hunger Out of the ordinary.
- Increased urination and feeling thirsty, as the body naturally reabsorbs glucose sugar as it passes from the kidneys, but in cases of diabetes and high blood sugar, the kidneys are unable to reabsorb all the amount of glucose present, which causes an increase in the amount of urine, and thus an increased need for fluids And increase the feeling of thirst.
- Mouth dryness and itchy skin, and this occur because the body uses the fluids in it to form urine, which causes less moisture in the rest of the body, where the patient may be exposed to dehydration in the body (Dehydration), and dry skin causes an itch.
- Blurred vision, which may cause fluid disturbances in the body to distend the lens of the eye, which may lead to the loss of the ability to focus.
Symptoms associated with type 1 diabetes
What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes? There are symptoms associated with type 1 diabetes only, including the following:
Unplanned weight loss, as this weight loss may occur despite the unchanged diet, due to the body’s inability to obtain energy from food, and thus the body begins to burn and use fat and muscles to produce the energy it needs.
Nausea and vomiting, as the body’s burning of fat leads to substances called ketones that accumulate in the blood and cause feelings of disease, and this may lead to a serious health condition called diabetic ketoacidosis
Symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes
What are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes? For symptoms associated only with type 2 diabetes, they are as follows:
What are the symptoms of diabetes? Yeast infections and infections caused by yeasts, where the yeasts feed on their growth on glucose sugar, thus increasing their amount in the blood and body will lead to increased growth, and this type of inflammation may occur in any warm and moist fold in the skin, such as the areas between the fingers Hands, feet, around the genitals, etc. These infections may occur in women or men.
Slow healing and scarring, and pain and numbness in the feet. These symptoms occur as a result of the effect of high blood sugar levels over time on blood flow and thus causing damage and nerve damage. Diagnosed with diabetes
Diagnosed with diabetes
- The following tests are used to diagnose diabetes: What are the symptoms of diabetes?
- The cumulative sugar test, or glycosylated hemoglobin, which measures this glucose level associated with blood hemoglobin, and measures the blood sugar level during the previous two or three months, and the higher the amount of sugar in the blood, the more hemoglobin associated with it A reading of 6.5% or more is considered a criterion for diagnosing diabetes, provided that the examination is carried out in a laboratory according to specific calibration conditions.
- A random blood glucose test in which a blood sample is taken at a random time, regardless of the time of the last meal, and a value of 200 mg / dL or more is considered a diagnosis of diabetes in cases where there are traditional symptoms of high blood sugar.
- A fasting blood sugar test in which a blood sample is taken after refraining from eating calories for at least eight hours, and a reading of 126 mg / dL is considered more diagnosed with diabetes.
- The Oral glucose tolerance test, which requires fasting for an entire night and the fasting sugar level is measured, then giving the person a sugar drink containing seventy-five grams of anhydrous glucose dissolved in water, and the blood sugar level is measured Within two hours of taking it, a reading of 200 mg / dL or more is a standard for diagnosing diabetes. A video about diabetes screening.
- Symptoms of diabetes
What are the Symptoms of Diabetes
Diabetes leads the list of common and recognized diseases, which clearly expresses a defect in the pancreas and its secretion of the hormone insulin in the blood. This disease spreads among wide groups of people, and its symptoms vary according to the degree of infection, the body’s response to the disease, and the different life system from person to person. In general, however, symptoms of diabetes are common and common to various people.
The degree of seriousness of diabetes varies in general, but this disease can be controlled as long as its symptoms have been properly diagnosed, it was discovered early, and the patient learned about this, to become aware and care for himself. Diabetes symptoms appear unevenly among young patients, and those with whom they are elderly, and the difference is also evident between a male diabetic and a female patient; gender difference is an important factor in the appearance and contrast of diabetes symptoms
Symptoms of diabetes
What are the symptoms of diabetes: Diabetes is a common disease in this era. It is a disease in which blood sugar levels are very high, and it has several symptoms that can be divided as follows:
- General symptoms of diabetes:
- Significant weight loss and loss.
- The diabetic patient needs to urinate frequently and permanently; he cannot dispense with the empty house for a long time.
- He drank large quantities of water, so that water becomes his companion wherever he desires.
- The diabetic’s vision has deteriorated greatly, as it is difficult for him to see things clearly.
- The appearance of some infections on the skin of diabetics, and the occurrence of other infections such as otitis media, and inflammation in the finger and around the nails, inflammation of the gums, inflammation of the gallbladder, and many others.
- Severe nervousness and tension.
- Lack of the concentrations and dispersions in childrens with the diabetes.
- There are strange symptoms that a diabetic patient experiences, which is his intense passion, and his love to eat sweets a lot, even if before the injury he is not a fan of sugars, and he is not addicted to it.
- Women with diabetes experience a strong, irritating itch in her reproductive system.
- Children with diabetes have been exposed to severe vomiting, which leads to severe dehydration.
- Diabetics frequently get dizzy.
- Older diabetics were overweight significantly.
- People with diabetes are more likely than other people to develop atherosclerosis, strokes, chest attacks, kidney disease, and appendix.
- The lungs are greatly affected, a feeling of severe pain in them, and the occurrence of so-called tuberculosis of the lung.
- Causing a serious risk in a woman’s pregnancy, as it can cause miscarriages, death of the fetus inside her guts, or cause fetal abnormalities in some cases.
- Sexual desire is affected by people with diabetes, especially among men.
- Sensitivity affected by diabetes patients; they lose their feeling in their limbs, cause pain in them, and sometimes feel cold, and sometimes their temperature, and sometimes lose them completely
- The frequent appearance of boils is a symptom of diabetes.
- Diarrhea and constipation in a diabetic.
Symptoms of diabetes for people with category I:
The increased urination associated with increased thirst and the inevitable consequence of this is an increase in the demand for drinking fluids.
Appetite is constantly open to eating foods, and this symptom is evident in patients with the first group of children.
- Weight loss.
- Dementia and persistent fatigue, fatigue, stress, and possibly rapid agitation, and anger.
- Infection with limb pain, and infections of the gums and teeth.
- Oral condition deteriorates if the patient does not care about oral health.
- Increased patient exposure to exacerbation of infections and wounds, which may be normal for non-infected patients.
- The deterioration of the sense of sight, the vision is constantly distorted, and the exacerbation of diabetics of the first category, and gradual with the appearance of their peers of the second category
Symptoms of a female with diabetes:
- Sexual weakness, loss of sexual desire.
- Losing weight and bee, although obesity may be a cause of disease.
- Clear blood pressure dysfunction; therefore, we see that a large percentage of diabetics also have dysfunction.
- A serious condition called tectonic acidosis, which is caused by a disruption in the representation of the diet, which in rare cases may lead to a coma causing death, and the speed and depth of breathing.
- Patients have an odor similar to nail polish remover (acetone)
The dangers of diabetes
In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks the cells responsible for secreting insulin in the pancreas and damages them, instead of attacking and destroying harmful germs and viruses, as it usually does in normal conditions. As a result, the body remains with a small amount of insulin, or without insulin at all. In this case, sugar collects and accumulates in the bloodstream, rather than being distributed among the different cells in the body. It is not yet known what is the true eye cause of type 1 diabetes, but family history seems likely to play an important role. The risk of developing type 1 diabetes increases in people whose parents, brothers or sisters suffer from diabetes.
In people with prediabetes (which may worsen and turn into type II diabetes) and type 2 diabetes, cells resist the effect of insulin action, while the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance. In these cases, sugar collects and accumulates in the bloodstream, rather than being distributed among the cells and reaching them in various parts of the body.
Causes of diabetes
There are several reasons that clearly increase the risk of developing diabetes, including:
- Age greater than or equal to 45.
- A family member of the first degree is diabetically ill.
- Certain ethnic groups are known to have a high risk of developing diabetes.
- Lack of physical activity.
- High blood pressure, defined by blood pressure values higher than 90/140 mmHg.
- Harmful hypercholesterolemia.
- A high level of triglycerides in the blood, which is one of the types of lipids present in the body.
- A personal history of vascular disease.
- A personal history of gestational diabetes.
- Genetic history of the family associated with diabetes
- Women with PCOS.
- Having a low blood glucose tolerance.
- Pancreatic infection with the viral infection
- Complications of diabetes
- Short-term complications caused by type 1 and type 2 diabetes require immediate treatment. Such cases that are not treated immediately may lead to seizures and coma. Among the most important complications of short-term diabetes
- High level of ketones in the urine.
As for the long-term complications caused by sugar, it appears gradually. The risk of complications increases when the diabetes is younger, and in people who are not keen to balance the level of sugar in the blood. Diabetes complications may eventually lead to disabilities or even death. The most important long-term complications of diabetes are:
- Cardiovascular disease.
- Nerve damage or neuropathy.
- Kidney damage or nephropathy.
- Eye damage.
- Damage to the soles of the feet.
- Skin and mouth diseases.
- Bone and joint problems.
- Diagnosing diabetes
There are many blood tests that can diagnose symptoms of type 1 diabetes or symptoms of type 2 diabetes, including:
- Random check blood sugar level.
- Check blood sugar level during fasting
- Diabetes treatment
- We can divide the treatment of diabetes into several sections, which are
- Lifestyle changes, including:
- Healthy and appropriate nutrition for this group of patients.
- Physical exercise recommended by the treating physicians, which is appropriate for each patient in particular, according to the overall diseases that he suffers from, which can be affected by regular and proper physical exercise, such as heart diseases, physical disabilities, and other diseases.
- Weight loss and BMI, which can help the body reduce insulin resistance, which causes diabetes.
- Injecting diabetes treatment: Insulin therapy has become more common in the recent period, despite the refusal of many patients to accept treatment with injections on a daily basis. Insulin treatment is divided into two types:
- Long-term effective insulin therapy: It is a daily injection, which provides the body with the basic amount of insulin. This makes it easier for the patient to accept treatment more, given that there is no need to inject more than once per day. This type of treatment can be prescribed with other medications, which are taken orally, to balance the disease more effectively.
- Treatment with insulin with short-term efficacy: It is insulin that is taken immediately after eating daily meals, and the amount of food is usually appropriate for the short-term insulin intake after it
Reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, which includes:
- Reduce smoking as much as possible.
- Treatment of hypertension.
- Treatment of hyperlipidemia.
- Treatment with aspirin
- Prevention of diabetes
- Ensure healthy nutrition.
- Increased physical activity.
- Get rid of extra weight.
- Gestational Diabetes
During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones that help pregnancy and support it. These hormones make cells more resistant to insulin. In the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, the placenta gets bigger and produces large quantities of these hormones, which make insulin work harder and make it more difficult. In normal conditions, the pancreas issues a reaction Moreover, it consists in the production of an additional amount of insulin, to overcome this resistance, but the pancreas sometimes fails to keep pace with the pace, which leads to the arrival of a very small amount of sugar or glucose to the cells, while they accumulate and accumulate a large amount of it in the blood Rh blood. This is how pregnancy sugar is formed
The risk factors for developing diabetes include:
- Women over the age of 25.
- Family or personal history.
- Complications of gestational diabetes
- The majority of women who develop gestational diabetes give birth to healthy children, however, if the sugar in the blood of a pregnant woman is unbalanced and it is not monitored and treated properly, it may cause harm to both the mother and the newborn.
- Among the most important complications that may occur in a newborn due to gestational diabetes:
- Low blood sugar.
- Respiratory distress syndrome.
- Type 2 diabetes at an advanced age.
- Death in dangerous situations.
Among the most important complications that may occur in the mother due to gestational diabetes :
- Sugar pregnancy in the next pregnancy as well.
Brochures on diabetes
Normally, the pancreas secretes the hormone insulin (English: Insulin) to help store and benefit from sugar. Diabetes Mellitus is defined as a group of diseases that represent disorders and problems in the hormone insulin. not or lack of secretion of the body to the hormone insulin, or lack of cells in response to insulin secreted properly, it can be said that diabetes two basic types, the first type ( in English: type 1 diabetes) is subject to attack the immune cells producing apparatus of the pancreas and destroys them, while the second type of diabetes ( English: Type 2 Diabetes), in which the pancreas secretion of the hormone insulin decreases or the cell response to insulin secreted decreases, and in fact, the second type of diabetes is the most common and common, and it is worth noting that, despite the lack of a cure for diabetes, there are many treatment options That maintain the patient’s health and protect him from complications as much as possible.
Symptoms of diabetes: What are the symptoms of type two diabetes?
In fact, type 1 diabetes usually appears suddenly within a few days or weeks, and in contrast, type 2 diabetes appears gradually, and its symptoms are generally general at first, and this is what causes people with diabetes do not know until after the passage For many years, it should be noted that the severity of symptoms varies with different levels of blood sugar, and the most important symptoms that appear on people with diabetes can be explained as follows:
- Excessive thirst
- Frequent need to urinate, especially at night.
- Feeling very hungry.
- Repeated infections, especially those affecting the gums, vagina, and skin.
- Feeling very tired.
- Weight loss, muscle mass decline.
- Ketone bodies appear in the urine, and these bodies can be defined as products of the processes of breaking down fats and muscles in the absence of insulin in the body.
- Suffering from itching around the penis in men and the vagina in women, or recurring fungi infection.
- Slow wound healing.
- Blurred Vision.
- Risk factors for diabetes
- Risk factors for diabetes
Type 1 risk factors
Although it is not possible to determine the cause leading to suffering from type 1 diabetes completely, there are some factors that are believed to have a role in increasing the risk of developing it, including the following
Family history: The risk of developing type 1 diabetes increases if a parent or brother suffers from this disease.
Environmental factors: Exposure to some types of the virus may increase the likelihood of developing this type of diabetes.
- The presence of autoantibody: Autoantibody is defined as destroyed immune cells, and it has been found that the presence of these cells may increase the risk of developing type 1 diabetes, and this does not negate the fact that some people did not suffer from diabetes despite the presence of these cells In their bodies.
The nature of the food: Although there is no direct cause for any type of food for the first type of diabetes, it is believed that eating cereal crops before the fourth month of age, and eating cow’s milk at an early age, and the lack of intake and consumption of vitamin D increases the risk of this disease.
The nature of geography: High incidence of type 1 diabetes was found in some regions and countries, such as Finland and Sweden
Risk factors for type II infection
In fact, scientists have not been able to find out the reason why some people have type 2 diabetes and not others, but it is believed that there is a group of factors that increase the risk of developing it, and these factors include:
- Weight: The higher the weight, the greater the insulin resistance of cells, which in turn increases the risk of diabetes.
- Idle: Few activity and lethargy cause an increased chance of developing type 2 diabetes, because the activity helps control weight, stimulates the use of glucose to produce energy, and increases cell sensitivity to insulin.
- Family history: The chance of developing diabetes increases if one of the parents or brothers has diabetes.
- Age: As a person ages, his physical activity decreases, and he is more likely to gain weight, and this may explain the increased chance of developing diabetes whenever a person ages.
- Race: There are some races in which type 2 diabetes is more common than others, such as blacks, but scientists have not yet been able to explain the reason behind this.
- Gestational diabetes: the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes increases if a woman suffers from gestational diabetes (in English: Gestational Diabetes) or if a baby is born weighing more than four kilograms.
- Polycystic ovaries: The chance of developing diabetes increases if you suffer from Polycystic ovary syndrome, and this syndrome can be defined as a menstrual disorder, obesity, and excessive hair growth.
- High blood pressure: Exceeding blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg increases the risk of suffering from type 2 diabetes.
- Fat level disorder: High levels of triglycerides in the blood, as well as low levels of high-density lipoprotein known as good cholesterol, increase the chance of developing type 2 diabetes. References